A thorough and deeper structural characterization of these complex times is essential. Truly, it is ultimately a question of method. And, ultimately, the communities, relationships and society we design, thereof.

The relationship between Method, Methodology and Epistemology
(Carter and Little, 2007, p. 1317).


We adopt event history analysis or duration analysis (economics) to develop causal or predictive models for the occurrence of events. As used in sociology, event history analysis is very similar to linear or logistic regression analysis, except that the dependent variable is a measure of the likelihood or speed of event occurrence.
Significantly, the goal of exploratory research is to learn what has happened and what is currently happening in the background of the question concerned.

Maxwell (2009 pg. 221) argues: “The traditional view that qualitative research cannot identify causal relationships is based on a restrictive and philosophically outdated concept of causality.”
With this understanding, the ‘Star system’ in particular adopts Max Webber’s (1864 – 1920) Verstehen: “understanding in a deep way” as a methodological approach.
Because the study seeks to investigate how emulating other people or emulating westernization either rejects us because we will not animate or assimilate ourselves for the star-system or accommodates us because we will regenerate the same system-relationship. This becomes a new conceptual analysis regarding how the music industry in developing societies has been analyzed before.
Our sought after candidate researcher is one with an intense clear theoretical and empirical focus, mature enough to take up a selfless process of initiation (enlisting the researcher as a subject in the study) and therefore may provide the organisation with a deeper and critical sense of phenomena and solutions, thereof. Significantly, this scholastic mode is important for us in ensuring that theory reaches those who matter the most, non-scholarly audiences.
In all these areas we apply the framework of person-dignity centred,  humiliation theory and production possibilities frontier. We utilise quantitative and qualitative data from open datasets as well as interviews.


Translating sociological problem in to mathematical statement

We use the following predictive mathematical frameworks to interpret urbanisation growth, opportunities and implications.
Scaling function (Y = A * X^k) We adopt the scaling function as part of our method to demonstrate (symbolically) the relationship between rapid city (urban) population growth and poverty. Which is to say, how poverty is constituted into Johannesburg is discernible in the ever-growing figure of social and economic indignities African working-class people are subjected to in the city.
Using Y = A * X^k, the value of the exponent k determines the type of growth in the system. Linear growth , where if X doubles, Y also doubles, and  repeatedly, results if : k = 1.‘Sub-linear scaling’ is the case where k < 1, in which changes in X result in less-than-proportionate changes in Y: if X doubles, Y will increase by less than double.
The problem arises when we have k > 1, which is known as ‘super-linear’  scaling.

Balancing equation


This implies unbounded growth and if this growth becomes unsustainable in the presence of limited resources, the city eventually collapses, and thereof, invalidates economic dignity . Unfortunately, as we will see, cities are systems which follow this kind of growth including, City of Johannesburg. Mohapatra  (2019)

Geoffrey West.
(below a graph presentation of the argument by West)



We adopt societal design in our method. In 1973, design theorists Horst Rittel and Melvin Webber introduced the term “wicked problem” in order to draw attention to the complexities and challenges of addressing planning and social policy problems.

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